The Annual Ten Disabled Rights Events in 2013 of You Ren in China

摘要:The 3rd of December every year is International Day of Persons with Disabilities. The theme of 2013 was “to break down the barriers and open the door, to build an inclusive society.” Before and after the holiday, we observed that both the themes of official events and the reports of the news media still focused on the various activities to care for and help the disabled. But for a long time, little attention has been paid to the practice and research of disability rights issues. The selection of the top “ten events” or the “ten people” in recent years lacked discussion on the issues of disabled people and their rights.

The 3rd of December every year is International Day of Persons with Disabilities. The theme of 2013 was “to break down the barriers and open the door, to build an inclusive society.” Before and after the holiday, we observed that both the themes of official events and the reports of the news media still focused on the various activities to care for and help the disabled. But for a long time, little attention has been paid to the practice and research of disability rights issues. The selection of the top “ten events” or the “ten people” in recent years lacked discussion on the issues of disabled people and their rights.

To review the top ten disabled rights events in 2013, with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereinafter referred to as the Convention) as the criterion of analysis and comment, it is of significance in the research field in journalism and the practice field of news reports. It not only allows us to reflect on the meaning and ethical principles of reporting from the disabled rights framework, but also urges news reports to give full play to its social role to influence the world and work together to create a world suitable for the survival and development of the disabled.

The Convention signed by the United Nations was the result of decades of efforts by the disabled, their families, and those concerned with social fairness and human development. Many experts think that the Convention is the most advanced and most comprehensive international human rights declaration. The preface of the Convention makes the interpretation of the “disability” as follows:

“Disability is an evolving concept. It is caused by the interaction between the disabled and the various attitudinal and environmental barriers which hinder the full, equal and effective participation of them in society.

That is to say, the disabled are not just the result of human physiological or psychological defects, social environment and attitude plays an equally important role. Therefore, confronting disability is not only the problem and responsibility of every disabled person, but also the concern of the society and every citizen. What's more crucial is that a fair, inclusive, and accessible social environment is conducive to the survival and development of every citizen.

The Convention is the first comprehensive convention on human rights passed by the international community in the 21st Century. It marks the attitude of people towards disability and the ways people treat disability that have the “paradigm shift”;

The Convention is the core to ensure that disabled people enjoy the same rights and basic freedom, inherent, and equal to all human, live as responsible citizens, and have equal opportunity and full participation in various affairs to make due contribution to society.

The Convention is not to create new rights for the disabled people, but to reiterate all the basic rights that are common to the disabled and other people and demonstrate the special meaning of these rights for people with disabilities and the effective ways to realize them.

The Convention includes the various rights the disabled should enjoy, such as equality, non-discrimination and equal rights before the law; health, employment, education and a barrier-free environment; and participation in political and cultural life, etc.

Principles of the Convention are:

- Respect for inherent dignity and individual freedom, including freedom to make one's own decision, independence and autonomy;

- Non-discrimination;

- Full and effective participation and integration into the society;

- No barriers;

- Respect for differences and acceptance for people with disabilities as a part and members of human diversity and humankind;

- Equal participation and gender equality;

- Respect for the continuous development of disabled children's abilities and their special rights

Following the above principles of the Convention, the annual ten disabled rights events in 2013 are selected and analyzed through the framework of media coverage and the rights of the disabled. Experts in the field of disability will vote for the annual ten disabled events in 2013. Because time is limited and the author is in no way eloquent in his writing, errors and deficiencies can hardly be avoided. Please feel free to send correction. Thank you very much!



The Annual Ten Disabled Rights Events in 2013 of You Ren in China

1.The blind don’t have “a heart made of glass” – people with low vision in many regions protesting the Pizza Hut Shrimp Balls advertising

Event review

On June 4-5th, 2013, people with low vision in many regions like Shijiazhuang, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Zhengzhou went to protest at the entrance of their local Pizza Hut restaurants to express dissatisfaction. What they protested were Pizza Hut Shrimp Balls advertising online. In the advertisement, a cartoon character asks another person: “Do you know why shrimp balls always roll?” The other character looks confused. The former character answers: “because he is a shrimp--ball!” At the same time, the bottom of the screen runs the caption, “because it is shrimp (blind) ball,” and in the picture, the shrimp ball wears sunglasses, walks on crutches, with the words “shrimp?” blind?”, and rolls around. Later, Pizza Hut published an apology for the Shrimp Balls advertising on its official websites.

After some media outlets reported the protests in Shijiazhuang and Qingdao on June 4th, some netizens voiced their support. However, some netizens thought that “the blind finally found the opportunity to ask for money.” On the Internet, there was a heated debate on whether people with low vision were too sensitive and fragile.

News link

People with low vision in many regions protested the Pizza Hut “blind” balls advertising

Http://china.caixin.com/2013-06-05/100537895.html

Comment and analysis

Discrimination against people with disabilities has always existed in the fields of education, employment, marriage and social life. But in most cases, it existed in the form of implicit or indirect discrimination, or in the form of negative stereotypes for disabled people. There's rarely such events as the Pizza Hut Shrimp Balls commercial which openly made fun of and directly discriminated against people with low vision. These events violated not only the fifth principle of the Convention of equality and non-discrimination, but also to protect the disabled person's name from attack in the principle of “the Convention” in respect to privacy.

When reports on the protests of people with low vision went out, it caused heated debate on the Internet. A lot of netizens commented that people with low vision were too sensitive, and even smeared people with low vision for their actions. This urged us to learn the importance of the eighth principle of the Convention to raise awareness.

The fact that people with low vision could take positive action to be people of action and safeguard their self-dignity and to courageously face challenges and public misunderstandings gives full play to their rights-based initiatives. This is the best embodiment of the Convention to encourage people with low vision to participate and make their voices heard. This is the largest impact of this event.

In addition, what people with low vision protested is the advertisement which is full of discrimination and irony. From the idea to the design, the production, auditing and broadcasting, nobody noticed anything wrong. This is a kind of indifference and collective unconsciousness. People with low vision protested against the use of discriminating words in public places, rather than the use of slang.

To associate “blind” with “roll”, is by no means a simple joke in the eyes of netizens. It will deepen the stereotype of “the inability of people with disabilities.” On the other hand, it runs against the idea of imparting more knowledge of persons with low vision on the whole society, including the families, to improve respect for the rights, interests, and dignity of the disabled and to eliminate the stereotypes, prejudices and harmful practices from all aspects of life stipulated in the eighth principle of the Convention.



2.Don't make the home a prison for persons with disabilities –Ji Zhongxing Capital Airport Bombing

Event review

At 18:24 on July 20th, 2013, Ji Zhongxing, a disabled man from Dajizhuang Village, Fu Chun, Juancheng County, Heze Shandong province detonated a homemade explosive device at the exit B, terminal T3 of Beijing Capital Airport, injuring himself but nobody else, with no impact on flights at the airports. On October 15th, People's Court in Chaoyang District, Beijing sentenced Ji Zhongxing six years in prison for the crime on its first trial. Not satisfied with the verdict, Ji Zhongxing chose to appeal, but the Court of Appeal upheld the decision.

According to an investigation, Ji Zhongxing detonated an explosion to arouse concern over his petition appeal. On June 28, 2005, when Ji Zhongxing was carrying a passenger by motorcycle in Dongguan, Guangdong, he ran into a police patrol check. He was chased and hit with a steel pipe, resulting in a fracture of his lumbar vertebra resulting in complete paralysis. After the incident, he didn't get compensation, so he went to petition.

News Links

Explosions at terminal T3, The Capital Airport

Http://www.chinanews.com/sh/2013/07-21/5065612.shtml

The final appeal of Capital Airport Bombing upheld the original Sentence of Putting Ji Zhongxing in prison for six years.

Http://news.163.com/13/1129/14/9ERULCN400014AED.html

The whole story of Ji Zhongxing's case

Http://money.163.com/13/0723/07/94F0HELK00254U80.html

Comment and analysis

The way Ji Zhongxing committed his crime aroused attention. He was doing that to solve his petition, so it's definitely not worthy of support. Though for many years, with a disabled body, he appealed and petitioned everywhere, things were not resolved, and he didn't get judicial relief, which makes us see the inaction of government staff.

But we didn't see the realization of his rights stipulated in the twelfth principle of the Convention to obtain equal acknowledgement in the face of law and the thirteenth principle of judicial protection. After the explosion gained publicity, his sufferings aroused sympathy and concern of the public. We are concerned that, since 2005, Ji Zhongxing was paralyzed in bed, completely unconscious from the navel down, food brought to him by his father Ji Tairong, and he even needed help to urinate. When he needed to poop, Ji had to press on his stomach and then dig the feces out bit by bit by hand. In this process, his right to health and recovery was not safeguarded. The paralyzed Ji Zhongxing hurt his hand in the explosion. While in prison, how are the rights stipulated in the twenty-fifth principle and the twenty-sixth of the Convention be achieved?

Though Ji Zhongxing was quickly sent to the hospital, we did not see relative information on his arrangements in prison. In the prison, is a professional prison staff rehabilitating him? Has staff received professional training and are they provided with support? All these questions, for persons with disabilities in prison besides Ji Zhongxing, still remain unanswered.

Looking back, the Ji Zhongxing event reflects the status of persons with disabilities. Of course, we are by no means exonerating Ji Zhongxing by saying he committed a crime because of poverty. But when the disabled face serious poverty, they need attention and support. We don't want prisons to be their final home.


3. I will tell a few jokes, so please don't cry -- the first public event on the theme of disability and sex

Event review

On December 5th, 2013, You Ren Talk held a salon at the Fanxing Theater Village, Xuanwumen, Beijing. People shared their thoughts. People with disabilities, professionals and researchers of sexual education, and domestic well-known sexologist Pan Suiming and Fang Gang attended and made speeches. Ten people with disabilities from the organizing committee went on stage to tell their own stories, triggering an emotional response from the audience.

News links

“The forum of disability and sex” was held; we need to look at the sexual rights of the disabled in the right light

http://www.chinadp.net.cn/news_/picnews/2013-12/06-12449.html

【分析评论】

When mentioning the health rights of people with disabilities, what first comes to most people's mind is treatment and rehabilitation from the medical perspective. They tend to ignore the needs of the disabled as, firstly, people. The twenty-fifth principle of the Convention stipulates: The States’ Parties to the Convention recognize the right of persons with disabilities to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health, and free from discrimination out of their disabilities. It includes sexual and reproductive health.

For a long time, the two topics of disability and sex were the antithesis of traditional moral concepts. Sexual and reproductive health needs of people with disabilities are often ignored, including sex education, sexual safety and reproductive health, in various places. It's an inherent human right. When people look at persons with disability, they often only pay attention to the disabilities, but ignore many of their needs as “people,” leaving the disabled people in a state of sexual ignorance, repression and misunderstanding. Therefore, in advocating health of persons with disabilities, sexual and reproductive health is a topic which needs to be looked at in the right light.

In addition, for their disabilities, the disabled also find themselves difficult to accept. By participating in the discussion of the sexual health issue, it would also promote the disabled to accept their own bodies and then to accept their disability.

This event was the first time discussing the topic domestically with disabled leaders and sharing their ideas in public. It provided a new perspective on self-acceptance and integration into society, which is of far-reaching significance.


4. Why are mental hospitals overcrowded? -- Zhuhai Baiyun Rehabilitation Hospital abandoned patients

Event review

On September 10th, 2013, He Yingying and six other psychiatric patients from Zhuhai Baiyun Rehabilitation Hospital were abandoned by the hospital and left in the waiting room of the Nancheng bus station of Dongguan city for a day. After the intervention of the police in Dongguan, Zhuhai Baiyun Rehabilitation Hospital picked them up. But the hospital denied that they were abandoned, only admitting that it was negligence by the medical staff, who had separated from them.

News links

Seven patients abandoned in Dongguan

Http://news.hexun.com/2013-09-13/157981916.html

Comment and analysis

On May 1st, 2013, the Mental Health Law was formally implemented. While the public was shouting for the end of the age of “mental illness,” the passage pushed the Mental Health Law and people with mental problems to the fore.

In terms of decision-making rights, guardian identification for people with mental problems has been controversial. It is the guardian decision-making system of people with a mental problem, such as the stipulation that “the one who has sent the patient should pick him up,” which leads to a large number of people with mental problems abandoned and ignored in mental hospitals. This is also one of the reasons why they were abandoned by the hospital. Of course, no matter what the reason is, when people with mental problems are admitted to a hospital, the hospital has no right to abandon those with mental disorders randomly.

At the same time, according to the purpose of the Convention, the freedom of people with a mental problem shall not be arbitrarily deprived, and all kinds of support shall be provided for independent decision-making. Taking into account that people with a mental problem may cause harm in society, the discretion on whether to deprive them of their freedom can't be given to their guardians or doctors. And the fourteenth principle of “the Convention,” which is freedom and personal security, also stipulates that States Parties of the Convention shall ensure that persons with disabilities who are deprived of freedom in any program, on the basis of equality with others, have the right to obtain the safeguards stipulated in international human rights law, and enjoy the treatment complying with the purposes and principles of the Convention, including the provision of reasonable convenience.

Whether these terms are based on regarding persons with disabilities as people for sharing the respect for inherent dignity can be truly followed should be our focus of attention, instead of shouting the end of the age of “being mentally ill”.


5. “Disability” is equal to “Waste” -- disabled people are prevented from boarding a plane

Event review

On August 19th, 2013, 28 tourists with disabilities travelling from Nanjing to Guilin were prevented from boarding Flight SC4728 of Shandong Airlines at Guilin Liangjiang Airport two times for “exceeding the standard,” leading them to block the plane gate and creating confusion. After a long time of negotiation, the airline agreed to allow them aboard the plane, but the flight was delayed for 3 hours. Afterwards, this caused public discussion. Some netizens held that these people with disabilities congesting the plane gate violated the rights and interests of other passengers. Some people thought that the airline rejecting the boarding of many disabled people was not discrimination, but attention to their safety.

News Links

Rejecting the boarding of 28 persons Http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/g/2013-08-22/112158822.html

Rejecting the boarding of 28 persons with disabilities is a kind of care not discrimination

Http://opinion.hexun.com/2013-08-21/157302715.html

CDPF: The restriction on the number of persons with disabilities to aboard a plane is expected to be relaxed

Http://news.carnoc.com/list/265/265632.html

Comment and analysis

Previously, when one or two people with disabilities were prevented from boarding a plane, the public's opinion was overwhelmingly the same, standing on the side of the disabled people, no matter what the stipulations were. This time, the number of disabled people was so large that there was controversy among the public. When the airline explained that Air Transport Management measure of Persons with Disabilities stipulated that if the flight number is 101 to 200, it shall carry no more than four people with disabilities unaccompanied, and the flight was capable of carrying more than 100 passengers. 28 people with disabilities was obviously far beyond the allowed amount.

In fact, this incident reflects a very subtle psychology of the public, when the boarding of a smaller number of persons with disabilities is rejected, it's inhumane, but when the boarding of a large number is rejected, it's for the sake of safety. Behind this, it is all affected by the public stereotype that “people with disabilities are inherently incapable.” When it comes to travel by plane, people think that all disabled people need help when encountering air disasters and the possibility of danger for them is higher than that of a healthy person. There is no research data for this, so I will not argue. But in this process, the airline's explanation neglected the point that what needs to be counted is the number of those who are “unaccompanied and need the help of others.”

In fact, even a restriction on the number of persons with disabilities like this contradicts the ninth and the twentieth principle of the Convention.

If the airline can provide high-quality walkers, auxiliary technology and assistance, the disabled can independently enjoy individual mobility.

Interestingly, the airport or airline is very willing to provide services for the disabled on the planes, but their services have overlooked the premise that the disabled enjoy independent individual mobility. For example, a photograph appeared on the micro-blog of Sina. It is a flight attendant from the Southern Airlines carrying one of the disabled aboard a plane. This photo was widely forwarded by netizens and the airline was praised for its humane service. But such service and propaganda guidance can only weaken the ability of people with disabilities. More importantly, in such an event, people often ignore the feeling of people with disabilities. In this case, it's obviously more appropriate to provide wheelchairs on the plane and it's likely that if the person with a disability needed to use the bathroom during the flight, then the rights of privacy and no touching during services are deprived of quietly amid the applause.

Therefore, we expect the China Federation of the Disabled to negotiate with the Civil Aviation Department on the restrictions of the number of disabled passengers in the “Air Transport Management measure of Persons with Disabilities”, to not forget to take the spirit of the Convention as its core, and to clearly define the specific situation and service measures of “unaccompanied and need the help of others” in order to better safeguard the independent travel of people with disabilities.



6.Not one less, except for people with disabilities? -- Li Jianchang was rejected to admission by universities due to a physical disability

Event review

Li Jianchang, from Houzhao Village, Taihe Town, Sheqi County, Nanyang City, Henan Province, got 526 points on a 2013 college entrance exam, 7 points higher than the fraction bar of the first level of Liberal Arts in Henan province, and 31 points higher than the lowest admission standard of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine which he applied for. However, for the five medical majors he applied for in the university, the school rejected him with the excuse that his physical disability made him unsuitable for learning. After the reports of the event and the co-ordination of the Provincial Federation of the Disabled, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine admitted Li Jianchang with exception.

News Links

A disabled student was rejected admission after the college entrance examination in Nanyang, Henan, the University of Traditional Chinese Medicine admitted the student with exception

Http://edu.qq.com/a/20130806/012048.htm

Comment and analysis

The twenty-fourth principle of the Convention clearly stipulates: States Parties of “the Convention shall ensure that persons with disabilities can be able to get access to the general higher education, occupation training, adult education and lifelong learning, on basis of non-discrimination from and equality with other people. For this purpose, States Parties of “the Convention” shall ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided to persons with disabilities.

Therefore, the rejection of his admission by the Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine for his physical disability is discrimination based on a disability and a violation of the right to education for disabled people. There are three points worthy of our attention:

First of all, a disability cannot be the reason for a refusal of admission. Though Li Jianchang, who is with a second degree physical disability, needs the help of crutches, it does not affect his learning. On why his disability renders him unsuitable for the five majors he applied for, the school has no explanation. For example, for chemical, chemical engineering and pharmaceutical majors and so on, which requires the ability to see color wavelengths, students with partial tritanopia cannot be admitted.

From the viewpoint of inclusive education, such mandatory provisions are not suitable. A reasonable solution is to give an explanation and professional advice to those applying for the majors that have special requirements, and see if the school can provide reasonable accommodation. Even if there is a difference in the functioning of the body, requirements can be met in other ways.

Secondly in this event, the school finally admitted Li Jianchang “with exception.” Although the problem has been solved, in fact, there wasn't a good result. The statement of the school showed that they were forced by the pressure of various parties, and they were not aware of the discrimination toward persons with disabilities in their provisions, which means that if there’s application for the school from persons with disabilities again, they would still refuse.

Third, such events occur every year. If it needs to be resolved, generally people should seek help from the media. But the prerequisite to causing widespread concern in the media is that the disabled person must be self-improving, until outstanding school results. Even if these cases get attention, not all the problems would be solved. Even if it was solved, their rights to education are still not guaranteed, nor are they able to promote the barrier-free construction of schools.

Education is the right of every citizen. If, because of physical function differences, we not only do not provide reasonable corresponding support measures, but reject persons with disabilities without shame, then we need to reflect seriously.



7. The more marginal, the more vulnerable -- the Ministry of Public Security rescues the abducted and manipulated deaf mutes

Event review

In March, 2013, the Ministry of Public Security commanded 21 provinces of Anhui, Sichuan, Liaoning, Hunan, Shandong, Henan and others to carry out a centralized police arrest and rescue operation, destroying 61 crime gangs with great harm of abducting and manipulating the deaf mute, capturing 360 criminal suspects, and rescuing 70 deaf-mutes Yang Er, an "A-level" wanted fugitive was arrested by the Ministry of Public Security.

News Links

The Ministry of Public Security: destroying crime gangs with great harm of abducting and manipulating the deaf mute and capturing 360 criminal suspects,

Http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2013-03/13/c_124450845.htm

The deaf mute crime refracted the marginalization of the silent world

Http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2013-03/15/c_115042726.htm? Prolongation=1

Comment and analysis

To abduct and manipulate persons with hearing problems is exploitation and a serious infringement in liberty and security. In many cases, we can also see that persons with hearing problems are subjected to inhumane beating and abuse.

In recent years, such crimes frequently appear in newspapers. Huge interests are in control, but the reason persons with disabilities are marginalized is based on their characteristics. Because people with hearing problems mostly live in special schools, in a state of isolation, their way of communication is limited to sign language, societal understanding of accessibility only exists for physical facilities, such as blind ramps and so on, ignoring the importance of information and communication accessibility. Thus, the twenty-first principle of the Convention on the freedom of expression and the free access to information is difficult to realize, and the social lives' employment, and marriage of people with hearing problems are restricted.

Despite the intensity of the Ministry of Public Security efforts to combat criminal gangs that come about and manipulate persons with hearing problems, the rights that need to be protected are far beyond this. And to hit blindly is hardly solving the problem at the source. Behind such crimes is a problem very worthy of our concern, namely what is stipulated in the sixteenth principle of the Convention which is to be free of exploitation, violence and abuse. When people with disabilities receive any form of exploitation, violence or abuse, States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including the provision of protection services, to promote the victim's physical, cognitive and psychological recovery, rehabilitation and return to society. Such recovery and reintegration should be processed in an environment with good health, welfare, self-respect, dignity and autonomy, and gender - and age-specific needs should also be taken into consideration.

This is an important measure to promote persons with hearing problems reintegrating into society and to prevent the recurrence of such events. However, we have not seen research or reports on actions.



8.Who should take the lead in recruiting people with disabilities -- Xuan Hai, a person with low vision, took a civil service examination for the seventh time

Event review

On April 13th, 2013, in the special examination room set up for persons with disabilities in the Secondary School of the Anhui Special Education School, the plaintiff in the first disability discrimination case of the Chinese Civil Servants Examination, Xuan Hai, and two other candidates were taking the exam on electronic paper, being the first to take the domestic electronic civil servant exam. In October, 2013, Xuan Hai applied to take the exam for the seventh time. Applying for the 2014 examination, he asked the Province human resources and Social Security Bureau for reasonable accommodation: “an independent examination room, assistive devices and examination paper with big characters.” The Bureau soon replied to Xuan Hai, claiming to have asked State Bureau of Civil Servants to provide these three auxiliary facilities.

News links

First domestic recruitment on electronic paper triggered concern

Http://news.xinmin.cn/rollnews/2013/04/14/19721407.html

Blind Xuan Hai participated in the civil servants examination for the seventh time

Http://edu.sina.com.cn/official/2013-11-11/0951400808.shtml

【分析评论】

From never being allowed to register to obtaining reasonable accommodation for the examination, Xuan Hai has now taken the civil servant examination for the seventh time. Many people have questioned the motives of Xuan Hai, and the fact Xuan Hai failed to pass the exam. Some people think that there's no need to provide convenience for Xuan Hai or those with low vision. But whether Xuan Hai can pass the exam and whether he is able to take it are two different things. Maybe after he was admitted, he would also face more discrimination. But at least for now, there is a precedent for people with disabilities to apply for the civil service exam.

There is another phenomenon. Although there's a stipulation to hire persons with disabilities according to a quota, the recruitment of persons with disabilities in Party and government organizations, enterprises and institutions is far lower than 1.5%. Even at all levels of the CDPF, there's very few staff with disabilities. They not only do not play an exemplary role, but also take the lead in rejecting recruitment. However, in 2013, seven departments will promote the employment of disabled people (the Central Organization Department and other six departments jointly promoting the employment of the disabled according to percentages of), it encourages party, government organizations, enterprises, and institutions to take the lead in recruiting people with disabilities. From this, we also see the government's determination to promote the employment of persons with disabilities, and to put an end to discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment. I believe that with the implementation of this policy, a new era will begin for the employment of the disabled and society's image of persons with disabilities.

What Xuan Hai always pursued was the realization of obtaining the rights of persons with disabilities to reasonable accommodation in the exam. The employment of persons with disabilities also need corresponding and reasonable supporting facilities. The second principle of “the Convention” which is discrimination based on disabilities makes clear that the denial of reasonable accommodation is also a kind of discrimination. This is a great contribution made in the field of anti-discrimination.

“Reasonable accommodation” means to carry out necessary and reasonable adjustment according to specific needs, without causing excessive or improper burdens, to ensure that the disabled enjoy or exercise all human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis with others;

This provision takes full consideration of the individual differences among disabled people and allows people to see that demands are personalized. It is not only suitable for disabled people, but can be applied to everyone.

The only pity is that although the revised “Protection Act of People with Disabilities in People's Republic of China” in 2008 and “the Barrier-free Environment Construction Regulations” implemented on August 1st, 2012 both make concrete stipulations and embodiments on the rights of persons with disabilities to reasonable convenience, its implementation still needs the ongoing efforts of people with disabilities again and again. This reflects that the public's perception for people with disabilities still stays with “medical mode” perspective. Therefore, we need the voice and action of Xuan Hai to advocate and to fight for their rights.



9. The joint statement of persons with disabilities on inclusive education and equal employment of persons with disabilities in the “Wuhan Declaration”

Event review

On August 26th, 2013, the Fifth Forum of the Inclusive Education and Employment of Persons with Disabilities and the 2013 Chinese Wuhan Handicapped Youth Leadership Training Camp, One Plus One (Beijing) Disabled Persons' Culture Development Center, The Federation of the Disabled of Wuhan University of Technology, Federation of the Welfare and Development of Legal Research Center for the Disabled in Beijing, young representatives from national universities, research institutions, public organizations and enterprises of 21 provinces jointly issued the ‘Wuhan Declaration’ of the Inclusive Education and Equal Employment for People with Disabilities.

News links

The inclusive education and equal employment in Wuhan Declaration has aroused attention

Http://news.xinhuanet.com/local/2013-08/29/c_117147038.htm

Comment and analysis

The biggest bright spot of the release of the Wuhan Declaration was that it was drafted by the disabled themselves and passed after discussion with many people with disabilities. It implemented the twenty-ninth principle of the Convention, which is to participate in politics and public life and the core spirit of the Convention for the disabled to participate in the decision making of all matters related them.

Previously, in all kinds of political decision making, we always see people with disabilities as the object of welfare rather than the subject of rights. They are regarded as objects that can only accept help, not subjects that can participate in their own affairs and make decisions. The significance of this kind of declaration launched by the representatives of the disabled is far greater than its content. Such initiatives play a great impact on changing the perception of the public.



10.A guide dog forced to be a pet— Chen Yan, a person with low vision fights for accessibility for guide dogs

Event review

On February 2nd, 2013, Chen Yan, a person with low vision, asked for help on her micro-blog. Guide dogs have never been to Hainan, so I don't know whether they can go to public places. Every time she brought “Jenny” on a plane, she didn't know where to get a certificate in Hainan. Seeing this, netizens in Hainan forwarded the blog and offered to provide help, finally making the trip of Chen Yan and her guide dog come true. This is also one blog of the activities of “One person and one dog to travel around the world": launched by Chen Yan with her guide dog to promote and spread knowledge about guide dogs.

News links

Chen Yan wants to travel to Hainan, asking for help on the micro-blog worrying about “Jenny”, a guide dog, being rejected

http://www.hinews.cn/news/system/2013/02/27/015481819.shtml

There’s no restriction on bringing guide dogs on the bus in Beijing, it’s free with no obstacles for the blind

http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2013-12-03/181128877681.shtml

Not knowing the launch of the draft at the Beiyuan Subway Station in Beijing, claiming making trouble out of nothing to coldly reject the guide dog

http://vet.health.gmw.cn/2013-11/26/content_9612814.htm

Comment and analysis

Whether guide dogs can be brought in and out of public places or take public transportation is already a commonplace discussion. It's difficult to solve. Despite the mention of this in the ninth principle of the Convention of no obstacles, the People with Disabilities Act of the People's Republic of China and the Barrier-free Construction Regulations are vague, and they put responsibility on “the relevant provisions.” This leads to people with low vision asking for help every time they are rejected from bringing guide dogs with them. It's difficult to obtain support from the legal perspective.

And at the end of November 2013, the People's Congress Standing Committee in Beijing clarified the Regulations of Beijing Municipality on Animal Epidemic Prevention (Draft), and added a new regulation that “there is no restriction on bringing qualified guide dogs with training on public transportation.” This stipulation has been very clear, but Chen Yan was stilled rejected when taking his guide dog in the subway.

Of course, whether guide dogs can be brought on travel is not just a problem that can be solved by the law, because it involves more than the rights and interests of the disabled. It also relates to the rights of others. When Chen Yan called for the rights of people with disabilities to bring guide dogs on travel, there are many healthy people not willing to accept the guide dogs because of fear. Therefore, the solution must be a multi-step negotiation. There is not only the barrier free issue for persons with disabilities, but also the concern of those who are afraid of dogs. How do we protect the rights of the persons with low vision, and at the same time not disturb other people? There must be participation from various parties, and the decision must be made according to the needs of each party. Persons with disabilities are still in a weak position, causing them to have difficulties travelling with dogs, because they are not able to enter and exit public places, and the dogs are forced to be pet dogs. However, police dogs are free with no trouble. Whether you are afraid of dogs or not, the reason behind this is the working duties of these two kinds of dogs.



Conclusion

For a long time, there's been little attention on the research and practice of journalism concerning the rights of persons with disabilities. Disability often appears in the new because they make good stories. However, it is difficult to judge whether it's conducive to the rights of development, equal opportunity and non-discrimination of persons with disabilities. Although these are the ten largest disabled rights events, the selection process was difficult. It's not because there was too many but there was really few events from the perspective of rights. Of course, we do not dare to say that the ten events we select are those selected by the readers from the bottom of their hearts. We can only select, analyze, and evaluate in accordance with the terms and core spirits advocated in the Convention. We hope that we are able to define the new values and social meaning of the disabled rights events from a new angle.

These ten events paid attention to the dignity of persons with disabilities from a general sense, including the stereotype and discrimination of society, and how society's understanding on disabilities should be improved. They also analyzed and evaluated from the education, employment, poverty, health, personal freedom, independent life, participation in political and social life, barrier free and access to reasonable accommodation and other specific aspects. Because of the complexity and diversity of various types of disabilities, we paid close attention to persons with low vision, persons with hearing problems, persons with physical disabilities and mental problems, but unfortunately, we failed to find suitable events related with persons with intellectual problems from the mass media. Of course, this doesn't mean there were no such events. Perhaps it was hidden, or we have to improve our ability to find such stories.

From these annual events, we were most surprised to see that more individuals with disabilities began to lead their own lives and have an independent voice. Some events were breakthroughs, such as the one where the person with low vision was expected to be recruited by the party and government organizations; some events continue to be a fight, such as the travel of guide dogs. Some events have no answers, such as the prison life of Ji Zhongxing. Regardless of the outcome, these events, through different channels, such as the website and micro-blog, have garnered widespread concern and discussion, and there are also many different. Maybe someday soon, they will be buried by other stories and gradually forgotten. But the participation and power of people with disabilities will change the attitudes of more and more people, influence the introduction and implementation of policies in the future, and bring more value to events related to disabilities. Until then, I believe it will be a process of pain and happiness to look back at the annual disabled rights events.

Finally, thanks to the following persons with disabilities news experts, and teachers for participating in the voting and giving suggestions:

Bu Wei, Researcher, Professor and Doctoral Supervisor of Journalism and Communication Research Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Sun He, Project Officer of Handicap International Beijing

Zhou Haibin, project coordinator of International Labor Organization the Equal Employment of the Disabled in China

Hao Xi, President of Yinghua Education Fund for the Disabled

Jie Yan, founder and CEO of One Plus One (Beijing) Disabled Persons' Cultural Development Center

Fu Gaoshan, founding researcher of One Plus One (Beijing) Disabled Persons’ Cultural Development Center

Cai Cong, Editor in Chief of “You Ren” Magazine

See you in 2014!

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